Dimensioning of cooling- and heating systems
Heat-distributing systems are intended to distribute heat from a heat-producing system, to heat-consuming appliances such as radiators, heating surfaces, hot water tanks or the like, which supply buildings with heat. Most people are aware of radiators and underfloor heating systems that do not transmit the heat they are supposed to, and that the temperature difference between inflow and return in the heating system can be lower than desired. One of the most common reasons for this is that the heating system is not properly balanced.
Why is it important?
Dimensioning of heating systems and cooling systems must be carried out in such a way that they comply with the specified requirements in the building regulations. In addition, they must also comply with the Danish Energy Agency’s increasing requirements for the buildings’ energy efficiency. In addition, there can be large operating economic savings to be gained by ensuring that the heating system is in balance, so that all heating surfaces such as radiators and underfloor heating are opreated by the desired flow. This will mean that the building receives the greatest possible heat effect from the heating system, at the least possible cost. Therefore, it is essential that the heat transfering medium is distributed correctly through all heating pipes, heating surfaces, pumps and valves, so that there are no heating circuits with better conditions for receiving heat than others, and that water velocities and pressure losses do not give rise to noise nuisance from the plant . In general, it is about keeping the resistance in the distribution system uniformly low. This is done by ensuring that both the distribution system and the circulation pump are dimensioned correctly.
How to ensure a balanced heating system?
The pipeline network typically consists of components such as pipes, valves and pumps. All components must be selected so that the entire heating system achieves the correct pressure loss between inlet and outlet pressure in central heating systems and fittings such as heat exchangers, valves, pipe coils and the like. Therefore, a number of calculations must be performed on the heating system to achieve the following:
- Determination of the total power and the total flow
- Dimensioning of pipes and valves
- Calculation of the total pressure loss
- Dimensioning of pump
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